The bystander effect refers to people being less likely to offer help when they are in a group than alone.

Pluralistic Ignorance

The company’s technology addresses numerous problems in reporting incidents, including the bystander effect in which no one reports something that’s happened instead of relying on someone else to do it. Studies found that the more people present, the less likely an individual is to report a situation, and it takes them longer to decide whether or not to make a report.

It’s an example of diffusion of responsibility, the desire to respond in a socially acceptable manner, and the need to be viewed as vital. The human brain is accustomed to visual clues to tell the body what to do, and the bystander effect reinforces lack of action. It was first reported in a seminal work by Darley and Bibb Latane in 1968 and extensively substantiated in later studies as recent as 2015.

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I don't know how or whom to report to.

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Can't Describe or Explain the Situation. 

Involuntary Physiological Changes 

Your body's fight-flight-freeze response is triggered by psychological fears such as a threat or the witnessing of something far worse. It's a built-in defense mechanism that causes physiological changes, like rapid heart rate and the reduction perception of pain.


It can also produce harmful effects on a task performance that distracts the individual from a single purpose, such as reporting an emergency quickly and accurately.

A secondary problem with reporting an incident is the information communicated verbally to 911. The information reported is more likely to be distorted due to the caller’s fear and shock. An overdose of human interaction when reporting to 911 isn’t necessarily desirable since dispatch has to decode what is typically a panicked and potentially incoherent verbal call before relaying it to responding officers.



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inaccurate Information 

A police dispatcher must take the caller’s information and interpret it into standard numerical police language to responders. Verbal communication increases the potential for translation errors.


The Texas Guardians